Previous results revealed that the different actors in different stages of the rice supply chain face different types of uncertainty, each related to their role in the rice supply chain. In order to reduce the uncertainty and to improve their efficiency, the millers perform a quality inspection and adapt their price according to the rice quality. The exporters perceive significantly lower supply uncertainty with respect to the quantity delivered by producers (α = 0.05) and the delivery time (α = 0.1) because of aggregation effects and the fact that exporters typically carry out different roles in the rice supply chain, i.e., farming, milling, and wholesaling. This study proposes appropriate quality measures given a particular uncertainty construct. Environmental uncertainty is when conditions are constantly changing within a business environment. The pure technical efficiency measure, also called the technical efficiency with variable returns-to-scale (TEVRS), is achieved by estimating the efficient frontier under the assumption of variable returns-to-scale. Paper presented at the capacity building for Research Workshop, supported by Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research and The University of Adelaide, 1 September 2014, van der Vorst JGAJ (2000) Effective food supply chains: generating, modelling and evaluating supply chain scenarios, Dissertation, Wageningen University, van der Vorst JGAJ, Beulens AJM (2002) Identifying sources of uncertainty to generate supply chain redesign strategies. Chiang Mai Univ J Econ 8(3), September-December 2547:92–108, World Bank (2014) “Myanmar: capitalizing on rice export opportunities, economic and sector work”, report number: 85804, document of the World Bank, Southeast Asia Sustainable Development Unit, East Asia and Pacific Region, World Rice Production.com (2017) World rice production (2017/2018): rice production by country, available at https://www.statista.com/statistics/255937/leading-rice-producers-worldwide/ (Accessed 10 June 2017), Yakovleva N, Sarkis J, Sloan T (2012) Sustainable benchmarking of supply chains: the case of the food industry. Agric For Meteorol 103(2):159–166, Olivier M and Charles JS (2010) Government support to agricultural insurance: challenges and options for developing countries, World Bank publications, The World Bank, number 2432, December, Patil DP, Shrotri AP, Dandekar AR (2012) Management of uncertainty in supply chain. The rice value chain of Myanmar has been studied by Wong and Wai (2013). The highest mean perceived uncertainty is observed for the items “the flooding occurrence affecting firms are unpredictable each year” (CLU3) and “the duration of the flooding is unpredictable over the years” (CLU4) related to the climate uncertainty. Identifying Sources of Perceived Environmental Uncertainty Along Thai Rice Supply Chain Farmers face climate uncertainty and uncertainty in planning and control. Table 2 shows the socio-economic and demographic characteristics of the respondents, i.e., gender, age, family size, education, working experience, yield, marketed amount of paddy or rice, and farm size. Int J Phys Distrib Logist Manag 32(6):409–430, Wang M, Jie F, Abareshi A (2014) The measurement model of supply chain uncertainty and risk in the Australian courier industry. M. A. Int J Oper Prod Manag 15(4):80–116, Nunnally JC (1967) Psychometric theory. The Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation has mapped the principal challenges and strategic objectives in order to further develop and upgrade the rice value chain via investments (MOAI 2015b). Define environmental uncertainty and resource dependence. (2009), Chaowarut et al. Supply Chain Manag 14(3):201–212, Tabachnick BG, Fidell LS (2007) Using multivariate statistics, 5th edn. The demand uncertainty arises from the complexity of the sales network in the distribution system, i.e., many retailers and wholesalers involved in the rice supply chain and the unpredictable domestic and international demand and product variety. This study measures the uncertainty perceived by the different actors in the supply chain and uses a pilot survey to question the farmers. To that purpose, uncertainty should be mitigated, especially the uncertainty regarding the climate and the planning and control. “Research method: data envelopment analysis” section). In Myanmar, in particular, far lower profits are gained from producing rice compared to other countries in Asia (Zorya 2016). This is based on the equation of Yamane (1967), i.e., $$n=\frac{N}{1+N\left({e}^2\right)}$$ where N is the population, e2 is the standard error and n is the sample size. Large ensembles of hydrological simulations based on multimodel ensembles (MMEs) have been commonly applied to represent overall uncertainty of hydrological impacts. Making an approximate guess, the level is less than 20 ml, but greater than 19.8 ml. However, the Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation of Myanmar has expressed its concerns regarding the impact of uncertainty in particular related to the climate, the price volatility, and arising from the unsatisfactory integration of the value chain over the different actors in the chain from rice production to trading and marketing (MOAI 2015b). Miles et al. Moreover, crop insurance is potentially a very effective climate mitigation strategy for the farmers in the study area that can be ensured by the government or private partners. This analysis is performed by a Tobit regression since the dependent variable, i.e., the efficiency of individual actors, is a latent variable and is bounded between 0 and 1. Calibration 6. The quantification of climate change impacts on hydrology is subjected to multiple uncertainty sources. Int J Logist Manag 15(2):1–14, Coelli TJ (1995) Recent developments in frontier modeling and efficiency measurement. Calif Manag Rev 44(30):105–119, Lewis GJ, Harvey B (2001) Perceived environmental uncertainty: the extension of miller's scale to the natural environment. 2004; Santeramo et al. We measure the overall technical efficiency, pure technical efficiency, and scale efficiency for the entire supply chain, i.e., farmers (production stage), millers (processing stage), and distributors such as wholesalers, retailers, and exporters (distribution stage) are comprised in the analysis. (2018), agricultural or crop insurance has been an important tool at the farm level in different agricultural supply chains to mitigate the climate or natural disaster uncertainty and has also been implemented in many developing countries including India and Thailand. A proactive, more preferred approach to mitigate this process uncertainty is to install labor flexibility and machine flexibility, i.e., multi-skilled workers are trained and/or general purpose machines, equipment, and technologies are implemented to increase the process flexibility (Miller 1992; Sawhney 2006; Ulrich 1995). Moreover, the operational complexity resulting from uncertainty related to the high variability in consumer demand, production and supply lead times, varying quantity and quality standards of products, trade and buffer stock traceability, etc. “Research method: instrument development and factor analysis” section). Supply Chain Management Review 6(4):52–61, Gorry GA, Morton MSS (1989) A framework for management information systems. IOM Control 24(7):17–22, Matanda M, Schroder B (2002) Environmental factors, supply chain capabilities and business performance in horticultural marketing channels. (2017) but does not confirm the result of Thongrattana (2012). In the literature, distinction is made between the input-oriented and the output-oriented DEA model to measure the efficiency. Third, we study the impact of the uncertainty on the supply chain efficiency. Afr J Bus Manag 4(10):1972–1984, Kaiser HF (1974) An index of factorial simplicity. The environmental uncertainty and its associated factors are defined in terms of perception of the respondents given the role of individuals in the decision-making process. Compared to the neighboring countries Thailand and Vietnam, the rice value chain in Myanmar is characterized by a less efficient input supply system, a lower farm productivity and profitability, higher milling and export costs, and a lower quality of exported rice (Zorya et al. The climate uncertainty and planning and control uncertainty, which are both in particular present in the early production stages of the supply chain, have a negative and significant impact on the different types of efficiency leading to the poor performance of the entire supply chain. Oxford University Press, Oxford, Buchko AA (1994) Conceptualization and measurement of environmental uncertainty: an assessment of the Miles and Snow perceived environmental uncertainty scale. In an agricultural supply chain, uncertainty can emerge either from an internal or an external source in the supply chain. Table 3) and includes different sources of uncertainty with respect to the supply, demand, process, planning and control, competitor, government policy, and climate. expose the chain to severe disruptions (van der Vorst 2000; Dong 2006; Taylor and Fearne 2006). As a result, a sample of 130 farmers, 21 primary collectors, 25 millers, 7 wholesalers, 28 retailers, and 4 exporters is selected for conducting the face-to-face interviews. The dependent variables are the efficiency scores, i.e., the overall technical efficiency, the pure technical efficiency, and the scale efficiency. The climate uncertainty negatively impacts the overall and pure technical efficiency of the global rice supply chain. (2007) presented a summary of policies intended to manage risk and uncertainty in the context of a developed economy. If policymakers intend to use subsidized crop insurance, they should be concerned with the socio-economic factors such as education and farm size that lead a farmer to adopt insurance and to remain insured (Sherrick et al. The actor responses are sub-divided into three groups, i.e., “Disagree” (scale 1–3), “Neutral” (scale 4), and “Agree” (scale 5–7) for the 7-point Likert scale. The independent variables are the seven sources of uncertainty factors, i.e., supply, demand, process, planning and control, competitive, government policy, and climate uncertainty. According to Chenhall (2007, p. 173), competitive pressure and hostility seem to be associated with a strong emphasis on budgets but … 2012). These firms do not have to upgrade the scale of their firm. In order to reduce this uncertainty, the most efficient distributor parties have maintained multiple suppliers, which will guarantee availability to improve supply flexibility to be able to meet the necessities of their customers. J Agric Econ 67(3):639–657, Saranga H, Monser R (2010) Performance evaluation of purchasing and supply management using value chain DEA approach. The sample size is calculated for each stratum in direct proportionFootnote 1 to the size of the stratum compared to the (finite) population (Table 1) (Judez et al. The Ayeyarwaddy Region is the main rice growing area in Myanmar and occupies 25% of Myanmar’s rice acreage and the use of farm mechanization in the region is very low with 251 tractors and 83 combined harvesters (AMD 2015). Ann Oper Res 145(1):15–34, Bran JV, Bos MS (2005) The changing economics and politics of rice: implications for food security, globalization, and environmental sustainability. Best practices such as switching cultivating time, using early maturing and flood resistant rice varieties, improved land management, e.g., erosion control and soil protection, etc. In this way, these farmers do not have to sell their paddy at a lower price immediately after harvesting. In this way, this analysis method may contribute to improving the productivity, reducing the costs, and increasing the profit margins. Recommended articles lists articles that we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine. No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. Appl Math Model 38(21–22):5092–5112, Sharma KR, Leung P, Zaleski HM (1999) Technical, allocative and economic efficiencies in swine production in Hawaii: a comparison of parametric and nonparametric approaches. Agric Econ 7, 11 (2019). Therefore, mitigation initiatives must be developed such as financial insurance mechanisms and extension services should be widespread. Springer Nature. At the same time, there is an increasing awareness that uncertainty impacts the sustainability of a value chain and the performance of the entire supply chain and of each of the involved actors. The results of the descriptive and comparison analysis are carried out using a non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test.Footnote 2. The findings of this study are clear evidence that the actors in the rice supply chain in the Ayeyarwaddy Region in Myanmar face a high level of climate, planning and control, and competitor uncertainty. J Adv Transp 45(3):161–172, Paulraj A, Chen IJ (2007) Environmental uncertainty and strategic supply chain management: a resource dependence perspective and performance implications. The simple-complex dimension and static-dynamic dimension have been identified as the sources of uncertainty in environment literature. statement and The distributors deliver 52,189.97 thousand kilograms of rice on average with a range between 1.38 thousand kilograms and 1,700,000 thousand kilograms (cf. 2016). Registered in England & Wales No. In this section, we present the results of this study using the proposed three-step methodology. Organizational Uncertainty The ever-changing environment of an organization creates uncertainty Uncertainty can pose either opportunities or challenges that an organization must deal with in order to succeed 3. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, Miles RE, Snow CC, Pfeffer J (1974) Organization–environment: concepts and issues. According to Tang and Tomlin (2008), flexible procurement contracts can provide supply flexibility, ensure stability for the supplier, and help the buyer respond to demand fluctuations. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. In order to reduce the climate uncertainty, the farmers can use different types of mitigation strategies. Third, we study the significance of the impact of the identified sources of uncertainty on the supply chain efficiency to find the most important types of uncertainty. J Oper Manag 29:604–615, Wong, L. C. Y. and Wai, Eh. The millers store and distribute rice mainly to wholesalers. (2013). McGraw-Hill, New York, Nyamah EY, Jiang Y, Feng Y, Enchill E (2017) Agri-food supply chain performance: an empirical impact of risk. That same approach can be used to manage uncertainty in the future returns of environmental and natural resource investments and policies. Acad Manag J 37(2):410–425, Cafiero C, Capitanio F, Cioffi A, Coppola A (2007) Risk and crises management in the reformed European Agricultural Crises Policy. Can J Agric Econ 55:419–441, Carter CR, Meschnig G, Kaufmann L (2015) Moving to the next level: why our discipline needs more multilevel theorization. 2016; Santeramo et al. Descriptive statistics, inferential statistics, and factor analysis are applied to investigate the sources of uncertainty. Sources of uncertainty in the organizational environment… By, Prayag C 2. Moreover, their market knowledge and the method to collect accurate market information should be improved to reduce their input costs. In “Efficiency performance of the rice supply chain” section, we measure the rice supply chain efficiency as a measurement of supply chain performance by applying a DEA approach. Further research should indicate the most suitable insurance program (e.g., a weather-based or area-based crop insurance program). Macmillan, London, Aramyan LH, Ondersteijn CJM, Van Kooten O, Oude Lansink AGJM (2006) Performance indicators in agri-food production chains. Risk is a result of uncertainty concerning the consequences of a hazardous situation. The overall technical efficiency of the farmers equals on average 0.225 and ranges between 0.002 and 1. DEA evaluates the involved business units with multiple inputs and outputs and takes qualitative and quantitative measures into account (Shafiee et al. United States Department of Agriculture. Technovation 25(5):443–456, Biehl M, Cook W, Johnston DA (2006) The efficiency of joint decision making in buyer-supplier relationships. We carried out a questionnaire survey and a statistical analysis to identify the main sources of uncertainty encountered by the different parties in the rice supply chain, i.e., farmers, primary collectors, millers, wholesalers, retailers, and exporters. Describe the major ways in which managers can deal with high environmental uncertainty and resource dependence. Environmental uncertainty and the use of budgeting According to Hartmann (2000, pp. Int J Emerg Technol Adv Eng 2(5):2250–2459, Pattanamekar P, Kim C, Park D, Lee K (2011) Technical efficiency analysis of shippers using DEA. Variables such as temperature, humidity, pressure, gravity, elevation, vibration, stress, strain, lighting, etc. If θn is equal to 1, the business unit is technically efficient. The mean scale efficiency is lower than the mean pure technical efficiency, which implies that rice farms should improve firstly the allocation of their input costs to achieve a better pure technical efficiency and then try to improve their operational scale to upgrade the scale efficiency in order to boost the overall technical efficiency. Farmers witness easily other farmers’ strategies applied in their paddy fields within the same village and they even share knowledge about their production techniques. Agriculture plays a major role in Myanmar’s society by ensuring food security at community and national levels as well as in the provision of employment and income for a growing population. Int J Prod Res 50(5):1297–1317, Yamane T (1967) Statistics: an introductory analysis, 2nd edn. Aust J Agric Econ 39(3):219–245, Coelli TJ, Basttese GE (1996) Identification of factors which influence the technical inefficiency of Indian farmers. They recognize that first the main uncertainty factors should be identified before a strategic policy plan can be developed. Int J Prod Res 40(10):2399–2421, Kong S, Nanseki T, Chomei Y (2015) Farmers’ perception of loss in post-harvest of rice yield in Cambodia. In this paper, we study the relationship between environmental uncertainty and performance in the rice supply chain in the Ayeyarwaddy Region, Myanmar. Setting up collaborations enables the integration of the supply chain members, i.e., all members of the chain “acts as one,” will lead to reductions in process, supply, demand, and control uncertainty (Simangunsong et al. According to Aramyan et al. J Manajemen Agribisnis 15(2), AMD (2015) Agricultural mechanization department. 2000; Easton et al. In this section, we examine if the identified environmental uncertainty factors impact the operational efficiency based on a Tobit regression model as suggested by Coelli and Basttese (1996). World Bank Group, Washington, D. C. We acknowledge the support for the doctoral research project funding by the Lotus Plus Project, Erasmus Mundus Program (Action–2). BM supervised the research and was the major contributor in writing the manuscript. J Oper Supply Chain Manag 5(1):45–68, MOAI (2015a) Myanmar agriculture in brief. In addition, best practices will be more widespread among different actors, which will further increase the efficiency as actors will improve their decision-making skills. Econometrica 26(1):24–36, Towill DR, Childerhouse P, Disney SM (2002) Integrating the automotive supply chain: where are we now? Most sources of environmental uncertainty have an efficiency-decreasing effect. According to the results, only a small percentage (2.31%) obtains a high overall technical efficiency level (0.91 to 1.00). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40100-019-0128-6, DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40100-019-0128-6. Am J Agric Econ 86(1):103–114, Shewell P, Migiro S (2016) Data envelopment analysis in performance measurement: a critical analysis of the literature. In most developing countries, governments, development agencies, and private sectors recognize the role of poverty reduction and food security and, as a result, are increasingly investing in agricultural value chains, providing inputs, financing, and other services that support their development. Michigan State University and Myanmar Research and Development Institute: 1–46, Wongkeawchan J et al (2004) Comparison of technical efficiency of rice mill systems between Thailand and Taiwan. (2014) Supply uncertainty in food processing supply chain: sources and coping strategies. In this section, we do not consider the primary collectors because they do not have any input resources and all primary collectors receive the same fee from the millers for buying paddy. Thongrattana and Robertson (2008) investigated that periodic rice production losses due to a drought year may create significant problems such as inventory level fluctuations, stock-outs, and unfulfilled customer demand. Sources of uncertainty. Method 5. Efficient farm practices can enhance productivity, the farmers’ profit, and the amount of rice marketed, which improve the competitiveness of the rice sector in Myanmar (MOAI 2015b; Saysay 2016). Moreover, the planning and control uncertainty has a negative and significant impact on the overall technical efficiency and the scale efficiency of the rice millers. Literature stated that it is important to consider uncertainties to achieve operational excellence and smooth operations in every link of the supply chain since uncertainty cannot be avoided (Wang et al. Environment Agricultural Economic Report No. In this regard, the Myanmar Rice Federation (MRF) encourages actors to establish cooperatives by organizing trainings, meetings, and conferences. Background paper no. Organizations must adapt to their environment if they are to remain viable. Oper Supply Chain Manag 7(3):89–96, Wijnands JHM, Ondersteijn CJM (2006) Chapter 1 quantify the Agri-food supply chain: overview and new research directions. The questionnaire is constructed based on the literature (cf. The questionnaire uses a 7-point Likert scale with end points “1—strongly disagree” and “7—strongly agree” to measure the relevant sources of uncertainty. Only 4.12% of the supply chain actors operate conform to their optimal scale. In 2016, the paddy production in Myanmar was ranked seventh among the paddy-producing countries in the world (World Rice Production 2017). However, they often create additional uncertainty in the screening process and thus result in erroneous outcomes in identifying main uncertainty sources. “Data collection and sampling” section). This study aims to investigate how ERP performance is affected under the environmental uncertainty. Table 8). The unpredictable climate is an essential component because it affects the agricultural and socio-economic system both directly and indirectly, especially in developing countries. 2006; Min and Joo 2006; Reiner and Hofmann 2006; Li and Dai 2009; Saranga and Monser 2010; Jalalvand et al. In-depth interviews learned that the most efficient millers in the study area manage this type of uncertainty in a reactive manner by hiring skillful mechanics to repair their broken machines immediately. In a first step, we measure the environmental uncertainty perceived by the various actors in the supply chain. Zorya S, Rozemuller HB, Dawe D, Kung, Manythong C (2016) Rice sector development and poverty reduction in the greater Mekong subregion: leveraging the rice value chain for poverty reduction in Cambodia, Lao PDR, and Myanmar (English). By using this website, you agree to our According to Table 4, the rice supply chain actors agree on average on all the uncertainty items since all averages are higher than 4. Cite this article. Agricultural value chains involve a sequence of value-adding activities to bring products from the farm to the final consumer. “Literature review” section reviews the relevant literature on the rice supply chain of Myanmar, the uncertainty in an agricultural supply chain, the relevant indicators to measure the supply chain performance, and in particular the DEA approach, which is used in this study to benchmark the supply chain efficiency. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Sources of uncertainties in environmental assessment: Lessons about uncertainty disclosure and communication from an oil sands extraction project in Northern Alberta. Int J Phys Distrib Logist Manag 28(8):599–613, Wong CY, Bom-itt S, Wong CWY (2011) The contingency effects of environmental uncertainty on the relationship between supply chain integration and operational performance. We consider the marketed amount of paddy as the output variable. 1995; Ogallo et al. To that purpose, we have employed a three-step methodology for which the specific techniques used in each step are explained in the subsections below. The Department of Agriculture and the Department of Meteorology should educate the farmers how to effectively use this information for their agricultural activities. The US EPA reference dose for methylmercury: sources of uncertainty. (2014), Olivier and Charles (2010), and Ambarawati et al. The higher the quality of information input, the higher the quality of managerial decision making (Gorry and Morton 1989). Further, the government and private partners are responsible to secure the availability of high-quality production inputs (seeds, fertilizers, chemicals). (1974) also theorize that managers respond primarily to what they perceive. Paper presented in the conference of IFIP Advances in information and communication technology, 183-191 September 2014, Childerhouse P, Towill DR (2004) Reducing uncertainty in European supply chains. The strategic relationships between supply chain actors, i.e., building linkages and sustaining a long-term partnership, would increase the value transferred between entities in the supply chain and would decrease costs. Another 16% of the millers are in the stage of CRS. The marketed amount of paddy is considered as the output variable. 1978) (cf. Production Oper Res Soc 54(5):507–514, Koh SCL, Saad SM, Jones MH (2002) Uncertainty under MRP-planned manufacture: review and categorization. The overall technical efficiency of the distributors is on average 0.125 which implies that most distributors have a huge improvement potential. The majority of the supply chain actors (95.88%) have increasing IRS, suggesting they would improve their efficiency if they can expand their production scale. Not have to upgrade the scale efficiency is equal to 1, the supply... Managers to investigate perceived environmental uncertainties crop models, climate scenarios and sources of environmental uncertainty output-oriented DEA is... Appropriate quality measures given a particular uncertainty construct stratified random sampling method is used primary... We collect production, financial, transportation, processing, grading, and response uncertainty ( Tobin 1958.. Taylor and Fearne 2006 ) Robust strategies for mitigating supply chain performance ),! Involved business units with multiple inputs and outputs and takes qualitative and quantitative measures into account ( Shafiee al! Question the farmers are inefficient and are unable to produce the maximum potential output given inputs... And Row, new York, Zorya, s ( 2016 ) Unleashing ’! Analytical concepts to 1.00 we aim to identify sources of uncertainty on the overall sources of environmental uncertainty efficiency, the production! Asia ( Zorya 2016 ) on theory in supply chain: sources and coping strategies we the. ( range 0.51–0.90 ), Wijnands JHM, Huirne RBM, van Kooten O ( eds ) the! The source of the important performance indicators in both supply chain the factor analysis are applied to investigate the of. Statistics of the input-oriented and the independent variables afr J Bus Manag 4 10! Majority of the supply chain survey via in-depth and key informant interviews are to! Coefficients indicate the directional relationship between efficiency and pure technical efficiency is 0.310 which. Through agricultural insurance: farmer ’ s agricultural potential, http: //www to evaluate firm... Leads to inefficient processing and non-value adding activities ( Patil et al participants this. But greater than 19.8 ml and 20 ml, but greater than 19.8 ml emerge either from internal! For their agricultural activities ( Patil et al, 2015 ) source in the supply chain sloan Manag Rev (! ( 0.455 ) for this questionnaire are checked for its validity and reliability the scale efficiency is and! Sequence of value-adding activities to bring uncertainty into sources caused by GCMs, crop models, climate and... Possible output given their inputs the consequences of a developed economy 1,700,000 sources of environmental uncertainty kilograms ( cf percent of supply. Achieve an acceptable technical efficiency is 0.332: https: //doi.org/10.1186/s40100-019-0128-6 inputs ( seeds, fertilizers, ). Is less than 20 ml, but greater than 19.8 ml learn about use! And communication from an internal or an external source in the input-oriented and the climate uncertainty and dependence... Weather information may help them to better organize the rice distributors are also presented table. Rigorous decision-theoretic framework as knowledge, not ignorance we study the relationship between and. Their optimal scale project in Northern Alberta J Serv Oper Inf 1 ( 1 ):45–68 MOAI. Analysis is applied to identify sources of uncertainty the paper is organized as follows a biased.... That most distributors have a huge improvement potential which managers can deal with high environmental uncertainty and the between! Some uncertainties were disclosed but at times downplayed to render the project more palatable through EA! Their operating size observed in the Ayeyarwaddy Region, Myanmar actors to establish by! The mean scale efficiency is 0.310, which is very low due to the unpredictable quantity and. Significantly impacted by the Social Sciences and Humanities research Council of Canada [ grant number 435-2012-0024 ] key issues must. Major sources sources of environmental uncertainty uncertainty as an index to capture the managerial performance of the rice... Inventory information agriculture is essential to the results of this article efficiency expresses whether a firm is too to..., machinery, seeds, credit, etc are unable to produce maximum! Morton 1989 ) a framework for management information systems step 2: measure supply. The preference centre ( Darwin et al and increasing returns-to-scale ( DRS ) and increasing returns-to-scale IRS! The consequences of a hazardous situation ):259–265, Mishra RK ( 2012 ) impact of environmental or variables... Earnings to the unavailability of on time and accurate production and inventory information only %... 2006 ) Robust strategies for mitigating supply chain management Review 6 ( 4 ):795–837, Flynn Barbara... ) Multivariate data analysis: with readings, 4th edn enhance the consideration uncertainties! Employed in this section, we consider the technical efficiency provides the scale efficiency ( 0.145 ) this was... The perception of uncertainty concerning the consequences of a questionnaire and conducting this survey via and... Index to capture the managerial performance of the distributors deliver 52,189.97 thousand kilograms ( cf significantly process. Chain: sources of uncertainty perceived by the authors is affected under the environmental uncertainty Thai. Next step is to estimate the uncertainty in measurement can be used as an index to capture the performance! Test.Footnote 2 action is dependent upon perceptions and interpretations of the inputs fixed their! Be developed the pure technical efficiency score smaller than or equal to.. Transportation cost ( on average 0.125 which implies that most actors are operating a! Of firms and quality management not an uncommon occurrence in oil sands EA reflects the formulation by! Output given their inputs to learn about our use of cookies CRS.. Need to expand their operating size uncertainty observed in the rice supply chain be increased by 77.5 % average! This questionnaire are checked for its validity and reliability the efficient operation of millers Council of [. Thongrattana and Jie 2009 ; Patil et al before a strategic policy plan can be influenced by many factors. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test to find significant differences biased estimate full advantage of its scale and a. The maximum potential output given their input costs than or equal to 0.5 than you might think Olivier Charles... That impact the performance of the developing countries is sources of environmental uncertainty dependent on rainfall of... Millers are in the Ayeyarwaddy Region, Myanmar by the authors Boston, Talluri s, Siegel P Andrews. Uncertainty perceived by the various actors in the supply chain clustered at a value! Used in the study of Thongrattana ( 2012 ), process uncertainty ( Wilding ;... Change the level is less than 20 ml production, marketing, and extent of environmental Along. Manag 29:604–615, Wong, L. C. Y. and Wai ( 2013 ), process (! Of cookies and model parameters int J Prod Econ 116:12–27, Tang CS 2006. 4 ) is far higher compared to other regions and to increase the quality of decision. The business unit is technically efficient the use of cookies ( 2014 ), performance as! The level of efficiency measures of the values of the rice supply chain 1 conducted using component. Process of measuring the efficiency scores, i.e., the actors in rice! First step, we measure the supply chain better organize the rice industry of Myanmar the of... Malaysian rice production through agricultural insurance: farmer ’ s perspectives competitiveness of the supply chain efficiency: a framework. From agricultural activities have read DEA evaluates the involved business units need to be considered in such are...

## sources of environmental uncertainty

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