Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia. vestita Nees. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. While every care is taken to ensure the accuracy of this information, DEEDI does not invite reliance upon it, nor accept responsibility for any loss or damage caused by actions based on it. Acanthaceae. 848 pp. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, CABI, Undated. 115-137. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. 55, 584 pp. Propagation is from stem cuttings or shoots from the tuberous roots. Thunbergia grandiflora adalah tanaman merambat hijau abadi dari famili Acanthaceae. The generic name honors Carl Peter Thunberg. Leaf blades (4-12 cm long and 3-5 cm wide) are egg-shaped in outline (i.e. climbing habit (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr, USGS), white flower with five spreading petal lobes (Photo: Chris Gardiner), tubular flower from side-on with a pair of leafy bracts at the base (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of flower (Photo: Forest and Kim Starr, USGS), immature fruit with a round base and elongated beak (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of immature fruit with small persistent sepals (Photo: Sheldon Navie), close-up of seeds (Photo: Tracey Slotta at USDA PLANTS Database), angel wings, angelwings, fragrant thunbergia, sweet clock vine, sweet clock-vine, sweet clockvine, thunbergia, white clockvine, white lady, white thunbergia, whitelady. T. fragrans dies to the ground for the winter but returns every summer in Gainesville FL z9a, and produces flowers right up until frost. T. fragrans is an herbaceous fast-growing vine widely cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, but it is also a common weed in moist disturbed areas, in particular along roadsides (Starr et al., 2003; Randall, 2012). Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive Plant Species on Niue following Cyclone Heta., 76 pp. This article is copyrighted by Ital is Vital, 2020. Villaseñor JL; Espinosa-Garcia FJ, 2004. > 0°C, dry winters), Stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste, Cultivated as ornamental for its attractive flowers, Seeds, stem fragments, roots, dumped garden waste, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. The fruit is an almost-rounded (i.e. Listado de las Plantas Vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia:939 pp. List of various diseases cured by Thunbergia Grandiflora. The species T. alata, T.fragrans, and T. laurifolia have also been described as invasive species in ... and is commonly planted to cover fences and walls in gardens in warm climates. Catalog of Honduran Acanthaceae with taxonomic and phytogeographic notes. Thunbergia is a genus of flowering plants native to tropical regions of Africa, Madagascar and southern Asia.. Its members are known by various names, including Thunbergias and Clockvine. It is a slender vine that resembles T. alata in size and growth habit. National Tropical Botanical Garden, 2:290. In: Micronesica Supplement, 6 61-65. 4. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer JY, 2013. Thunbergia fragrans is a cold tender species in most of the Coastal Southeast. quadrangular) and somewhat hairy (i.e. Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds. The plant is sometimes harvested from the wild for local use as a food and medicine. Brit. Efloraofindia (earlier Indiantreepix) is the largest Google e-group in the world in this field & largest nature related in India devoted to creating awareness, helping in identification etc. pubescent) when young. Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Newfield M; Bull C, 2004. 273 pp. The family Acanthaceae includes about 221 genera and 4000 species widespread in both New and Old World Tropics (Scotland and Vollesen, 2000; Stevens, 2012). Plants of the Eastern Caribbean., Barbados: University of the West Indies. In addition, seeds are available from nurseries on the internet. Daniel TF, 2001. Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. It is regarded as a potentially significant environmental weed in Queensland (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. Species in the genus Thunbergia have bisexual, zygomorphic, axillary, and usually solitary flowers (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96. Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Meyer J Y, Lavergne C, 2004. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay)). Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85:1-246. 1192 pp. Tropical ornamentals. Acanthaceae. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm. 818 pp. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Common names tumbergia-branca in Portuguese vit thunbergia in Swedish wan hua cao in language. Lawai, Kauai, Hawaii. They have margins that vary from being slightly lobed, to toothed (i.e. Leaves opposite; blades 6.5-11 × 1.8-6 cm, ovate to lanceolate, chartaceous, the apex acute, the base truncate or subcordiform; margins undulate and ciliate; upper surface dark green, glabrous or somewhat scabrous; lower surface pale green, dull, puberulous, with prominent venation; petiole 2-3.5 cm long, slender, pubescent, sulcate, with the base somewhat dilated. Kauai, Hawaii, USA: Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden. The use of this species as an ornamental should be discouraged (Starr et al., 2003; Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2011). It has been widely cultivated as an ornamental and now it is cultivated and naturalized in North, Central and South America, the Caribbean and on many islands in the Indian and Pacific Ocean (see distribution table for details; Daniel, 1995, 2001, 2005; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Taxon, 57(3):811-822. Wagner WI, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. T. fragrans has been widely used as an ornamental for its attractive flowers (Starr et al., 2003; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004). by Breedlove DE]. http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/pohreports/thunbergia_fragrans.pdf, Stevens PF, 2012. [English title not available]. In: Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 107 1-3348. Catalog of Honduran Acanthaceae with taxonomic and phytogeographic notes. This shrub has small, ovate leaves with entire margins borne opposite on thin, brown stems. It has become an exotic weed in many tropical countries. An excellent book, giving information on over 200 plants, their medicinal compounds and applications. Beautés fatales: Acanthaceae species as invasive alien plants on tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Kew Bulletin, 55:513-589. Myanmar, Cambodia and Vietnam) and China. [English title not available]. Daniel TF, 2010. Seeds for sale starting at € 5.40. Flowering plants of Jamaica. ), Panama: Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, 599 pp. India 4: 391. ect. Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize. Systematic Botany, 25:106-121. In the case of T. fragrans, pollinators are unknown, but based on floral traits the species could be considered entomophilous (Starr et al., 2003). Stems cylindrical, striate, slender, puberulous. Diversity and Distributions. It is native to India and Southern Asia but widespread in the tropics including Florida Hawaii, Australia, New Caledonia, French Polynesia, Caribbean and Indian Ocean islands, southern Africa and Central America. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00094.x. White thunbergia is not a prohibited or restricted invasive plant under the Biosecurity Act 2014, however everyone has a general biosecurity obligation (GBO) to take reasonable and practical steps to minimise the risks associated with invasive plants and animals under their control. Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. Wu & H.S. Swarbrick JT, 1997. its oppositely arranged leaves (4-10 cm long and 3-5 cm wide) have arrow-shaped bases and slightly lobed to almost entire margins. Nomenclature and Classification > Taxon Record Name > Scientific Name. Fragrant thunbergia (Thunbergia fragrans) is widely cultivated in tropical and sub-tropical regions for its attractive white flowers. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive Plant Species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp. angel wings, angelwings, fragrant thunbergia, sweet clock vine, sweet clock-vine, sweet clockvine, thunbergia, white clockvine, white lady, white thunbergia, whitelady Proceedings of the California Academy of Science, 61:289-377. Swarbrick JT, 1997. Space JC, Waterhouse BM, Newfield M, Bull C, 2004. (Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentina, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay).) Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares, vol. [Proceedings of the California Academy of Science], 61 289-377. Thunbergia on its own usually refers to Thunbergia grandiflora, while Thunbergia alata is often known as Black-eyed Susan Vine or just Black-eyed Susan. In Australia, T. fragrans grows as a weed in riverbanks (i.e., riparian vegetation), closed forests, forest margins, plantation crops, roadsides, urban bushland, disturbed sites and waste areas in tropical and subtropical habitats (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). T. fragrans is native to India, Southeastern Asia and Malesia (Daniel, 2010; USDA-ARS, 2014). T. fragrans grows best on fertile soils with good drainage and pH ranging from 6.1 to 7.8 (PROTA, 2014). https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide, T. fragrans is an herbaceous fast-growing vine widely cultivated as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions of the world, but it is also a common weed in moist disturbed areas, in particular along roadsides (. Urban listed this species as “spontaneous” for the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, St. Thomas, St. Croix, Puerto Rico, Guadeloupe, Martinique, St. Vincent, Barbados and Trinidad in his Symbolae Antillanae. Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA. These restrictions may prevent the use of one or more of the methods referred to, depending on individual circumstances. The risk of introduction of T. fragrans is very high. A potential weed of closed forests, forest margins, watercourses (i.e. Mito T, Uesugi T, 2004. Daniel TF, 2005. Flora Vitiensis Nova: A new flora of Fiji. Report to the Government of Samoa on invasive plant species of environmental concern. (Flora de Antioquia.) Global Environmental Research, 8(2):171-191. San Francisco, USA: California Academy of Sciences, 1-158. Thunbergia fragrans, the whitelady is a perennial climbing twiner in the genus Thunbergia.. Distribution. Daniel T F, 2001. its white tubular flowers (about 5 cm across) are subtended by two leafy bracts (13-15 mm long). Flowering plants of Jamaica. Beautés fatales: Acanthaceae species as invasive alien plants on tropical Indo-Pacific islands. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden, 107:1-3348. More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/. Figure 4: Thunbergia fragrans. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. PROTA4U web database. 1), 22-96. The Plant List includes 302 scientific plant names of species rank for the genus Thunbergia.Of these 31 are accepted species names. Flora of the Solomon Islands. General Information Black-eyed Susan is a climbing, perennial plant producing one or more annual stems from a woody rootstock. http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list, Josekutty PC; Wakuk EE; Joseph MJ, 2002. axils). This species reproduces by seeds and also vegetatively via fragments of stems and roots. Josekutty PC, Wakuk EE, Joseph MJ, 2002. T. fragrans is easily propagated by seeds, which it produces abundantly in its native range and in the tropical countries of introduction (Meyer and Lavergne, 2004). Balick MJ; Nee M; Atha DE, 2000. In many places it is considered as an invasive species. The most rarely used plants are medicinal plants such as Sauropus amoebiflorus Airy Shaw, Thunbergia fragrans Roxb., Bridelia retusa Spreng., and Wendlandia tinctoria DC. Variation in the shape, size, pubescence, and margin form of the leaves is extensive in T. fragrans, and taxa have been recognized based on these characters (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Volume 2. Thunbergia fragrans is a perennial vine, with green, oblong leaves and white flowers, similar in shape to Thunbergia gregorii. Common name: Bengal trumpet vine, Bengal clock vine, Sky vine, and Sky flower Height: About 15 meter Plant type: Perennial climbing plant Root system Tuberous Online Portal of India Biodiversity., http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list. Figure 5: Thunbergia grandiflora. Description Top of page. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/. Catalog of Acanthaceae in El Salvador. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. English name(s): White Thunbergia, Thunbergia White gem Description: Climber, scabrous. ovate) or somewhat elongated (i.e. Its pure white flowers distinguish it, however. It is most commonly found on roadsides, but can spread into forests and scrub. Western Australia: Prohibited - on the prohibited species list and not permitted entry into the state. In Australia, T. fragrans is considered a species of “recent introduction” and by the year 2011 this species had been recorded at several locations in the coastal districts of eastern Queensland (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). Cui, Highly adaptable to different environments, Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc, Benefits from human association (i.e. The slender, green or reddish coloured stems are square in cross-section (i.e. Flower white. Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Flora Vitiensis nova: a new flora of Fiji (spermatophytes only). The subfamily Thunbergioideae comprise five genera, the largest of which, Thunbergia, contains about 100 species restricted to tropical and subtropical regions of Africa, Madagascar, Asia, and Australia (McDade et al., 2000; Borg et al., 2008). 2. Zuloaga FO; Morrone O; Belgrano MJ; Marticorena C; Marchesi E, 2008. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission. Wallingford, UK: CABI. Special qualities: Tolerates drought no Tolerates high humidity no Tolerates seaside conditions no Insect resistant no Disease resistant no Deer resistant no Best uses Symbiosis Attracts butterflies no Attracts hummingbirds no Autumn foliage no Colorful berries no Desirable qualities Other interest Other interest color Other interest period Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. New York, USA: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 1104 pp. Welcome to the India Biodiversity Portal - A repository of information designed to harness and disseminate collective intelligence on the biodiversity of the Indian subcontinent. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium. Hawaii, USA: US Geological Survey, Biological Resources Division, Haleakala Field Station. Zuloaga FO, Morrone O, Belgrano MJ, Marticorena C, Marchesi E, 2008. Scotland RW; Vollesen K, 2000. The Plant List includes a further 9 scientific plant names of infraspecific rank for the genus Thunbergia.We do not intend The Plant List to be complete for names of infraspecific rank. Space JC; Flynn T, 2001. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Online database. In: Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 85 1-246. 51-108. 10 (5/6), 333-347. How Thunbergia Grandiflora is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. 1999). Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Catalogue of vascular plants of Panama (Catalogo de Plantas Vasculares de Panama. It is a fast-growing vine which has been intentionally introduced as an ornamental in many tropical, subtropical and warm temperate regions where it has escaped and naturalized becoming a serious threat for native plant communities (Starr et al., 2003; Meyer and Lavergne, 2004). Naturalised overseas in south-eastern USA (i.e. Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander S N, 2007. Report to the Kingdom of Tonga on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. T. fragrans also spreads vegetatively by cuttings, stem fragments, and roots (Starr et al., 2003; PIER, 2014). pentstemonoides (Nees) T. Anderson, Thunbergia coccinea Wall., Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. Hawaii, USA: USDA Forest Service, Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry, 79 pp. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, USDA-NRCS, 2014. All rights reserved. 10 (2), 113-123. Classification of Acanthaceae. Space JC; Flynn T, 2002. 79 pp. Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. Daniel TF, 1995. lanceolate) in shape. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp. The mobile application of Environmental Weeds of Australia is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes. > 10°C, Cold average temp. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Fragrant thunbergia (Thunbergia fragrans) is regarded as a potentially significant environmental weed in Queensland. ACANTHACEAE whitelady. Molecular phylogenetics and morphological evolution of Thunbergioideae (Acanthaceae). Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 23:115-137. Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. According to Brickell and Zuk (1997), Thunbergia species are susceptible to spider mites, whiteflies, and scale insects. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP))., http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf. Roxburghia rostrata Russell Roxburghia rostrata Russell ex Nees Homonyms Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. This species is declared under legislation in the following states and territories: For information on the management of this species see the following resources: Fragrant thunbergia (Thunbergia fragrans) is relatively similar to blue trumpet vine (Thunbergia grandiflora), laurel clock vine (Thunbergia laurifolia) and black-eyed Susan (Thunbergia alata), and very similar to native thunbergia (Thunbergia arnhemica). Smith AC, 1981. (2011), Managed forests, plantations and orchards, Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25])), As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate, < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25]), Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. Adams C D, 1972. Florida), the Caribbean (e.g. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011, Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2011, Flora of China Editorial Committee (2014), Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011), Debris and waste associated with human activities, http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm, http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html, http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2, http://indiabiodiversity.org/species/list, http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm, http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf, http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/niue_report_20041217.pdf, http://www.hear.org/pier/pdf/pohreports/thunbergia_fragrans.pdf, http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Thunbergia_fragrans.htm, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, Atlántida, Comayugua, Cortes, El Paraiso, F. Morazan, Yoro , La Paz, Chiapas, Hidalgo, Morelos, Oaxaca, Pueblas, St Luis Potosi, Tabasco, Veracruz, Yucatan, Original citation: Idarraga-Piedrahita et al. Daniel TF, 2010. Common name(s) White Thunbergia, Fragrant Thunbergia (CLASS 1) Flower colour; life form. Calyx green, of 15-20 sepals, lanceolate, 3-5 mm long; corolla white, infundibuliform, with 5 lobes, the tube 2.5-4 cm long, narrow at the base, yellow inside, the limb 4-5 cm in diameter. Balick MJ, Nee M, Atha DE, 2000. ... in their chemical structure may be responsible for their biological activities and hence justifies their nutritive and medicinal uses Diversity and Distributions. pubescent) when young. Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Blue thunbergia (Thunbergia grandiflora) is relatively similar to fragrant thunbergia (Thunbergia fragrans), black-eyed Susan (Thunbergia alata) and the native species Thunbergia arnhemica. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: University of Hawaii Press. Oviedo Prieto R; Herrera Oliver P; Caluff MG, et al. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Uses Cultivation. It is commonly grown as an ornamental, being valued especially for its large, violet or white flowers[ to ensure you have the latest version of this fact sheet. Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. In Australia, the only herbicide active registered for the control of Thunbergia species is imazapyr. In China, T. fragrans has been recorded flowering from August to January and fruiting from November to March (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). The American Horticultural Society A-Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants. The control methods referred to in this fact sheet should be used in accordance with the restrictions (federal and state legislation, and local government laws) directly or indirectly related to each control method. India Biodiversity, 2014. , 2012. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated. Names of Thunbergia Grandiflora in various languages of the world are also given. 1). Mito T; Uesugi T, 2004. Leaves 6-8 x 4-6 cm, ovate, entire, apex acute, base truncate to subcordate, 5-ribbed, scabrid; petiole 4 cm long. Flowers trumpet-shaped, corolla white to about 7 cm long. Distinguishing features. Stems cylindrical, striate, slender, puberulous. The genus Thunbergia is named after the Swedish botanist and explorer, Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1822). its distinctive fruit capsule is topped with a long, thick, beak. ovate) or somewhat triangular with arrow-shaped (i.e. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label. Flora Chiapas, [ed. Bhutan, India, Nepal and Sri Lanka), south-eastern Asia (i.e. Flora of China. Key words: Thunbergia, Distribution, Traditional uses, Assam INTRODUCTION Thunbergia named in 1780 by Retzius, in the honours of Carl Peter Thunberg (1743-1828), a Daniel T F, 2005. Visit our guidelines.Traditional uses of medicinal plants by native people in Nawarangpur district, Odisha, India Reference(s) Traditional uses of medicinal plants by native people in Nawarangpur district, Odisha, India by N. along with discussion & documentation of Indian Flora. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore, Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore. CABI is a registered EU trademark. characteristic features. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. hastate) bases. Scientific Name: Thunbergia fragrans Synonym: Thunbergia volubilis Common Names: White Lady, Whitelady, White Thunbergia, Sweet Clock-vine, White Clock-vine Plant Characteristics. 599 pp. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. This herbicide should be applied in a ratio of 7.5 ml/L water. a vine or creeper with slender four-angled stems that are somewhat hairy when young. T. fragrans is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds where is listed as an “environmental weed,” and it is also listed as invasive in Australia, Japan, Singapore, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hawaii and French Polynesia among others (Meyer and Lavergne, 2004; Mito and Uesugi, 2004; Chong et al., 2009; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; Oviedo-Prieto et al., 2012; PIER, 2014). All plants segments and roots have to be removed in order to avoid re-sprouts. Catalog of Acanthaceae in El Salvador. The flower tube is narrow (15-30 mm long) and topped with five broad, white, petal lobes (i.e. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. New catalogue of the vascular flora of Venezuela. It is widely grown as a garden ornamentaland wall covering in Kenya. In: Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos, Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf. Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawaii, revised edition. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Portland, Oregon, USA: Timber Press. Mauritius and La Réunion) and on several Pacific islands (e.g. leaf and mature fruit (Photo: Land Protection, QDNRW) almost entire leaves (Photo: Sheldon Navie) A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species., Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. 1-158. var. In: Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, Honiara, Solomon Islands: ii + 203 pp. Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. petioles) about 4 cm long. It is a fast-growing perennial herbaceous climber. Brickell C; Zuk JD, 1997. Copyright © 2016. Idárraga-Piedrahita A; Ortiz RDC; Callejas Posada R; Merello M, 2011. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x. Dispersal of this species is usually facilitated by it being grown in gardens (i.e. Capsules 1-2.5 cm long, depressed-globose at the base, the upper half in the form of a beak, dehiscent in two halves; seeds 4, globose, approximately 5 mm in diameter, pubescent, with a depression at the base (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). Hokche O; Berry PE; Huber O, 2008. It grows and flowers well in part shade in any reasonably moist soil. Plants of Hawaii. The purple flowers have a yellow throat and grow to 1 1/4 inches long and may appear A low-growing, slender-stemmed, spreading creeper or climbing vine. Wu TL, 2001. Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Contributions from the University of Michigan Herbarium, 24:51-108. Compendium record. > 10°C, Cold average temp. 6 (Special Issue No. It is most often grown on trellises and fences, hanging baskets, and as a ground cover in gardens (Wagner et al., 1999; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014). Each flower is subtended by two leafy bracts (13-15 mm long) that are either egg-shaped in outline (i.e. These species can be distinguished by the following differences: Fact sheets are available from Department of Employment, Economic Development and Innovation (DEEDI) service centres and our Customer Service Centre (telephone 13 25 23). Invasive alien species in Japan: the status quo and new regulations for prevention of their adverse effects.

thunbergia fragrans medicinal uses

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